Help us with our evidence needs

We’d like your help with the SoNaRR evidence needs in the table below:

  • Can you partner with us to develop projects to answer these questions?
  • Do you know of any evidence that isn’t in SoNaRR 2016 or 2020 that will help with the assessment?

Contact us if you can help with this.

Please note, we also have some additional marine and coastal evidence needs.

Updating our evidence needs table

We will work with you to update this evidence needs table regularly.

Through this adaptive process, we will improve our delivery of the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (SMNR) across Wales.

How to use the evidence needs table

Each need has been assigned to one or more of the 4 aims of SMNR which guide our assessment.

Aim 1: Stocks of natural resources are safeguarded and enhanced
Aim 2: Ecosystems are resilient to expected and unforeseen change
Aim 3: Wales has healthy places for people, protected from environmental risks
Aim 4: A regenerative economy with sustainable levels of production and consumption

Use the search box to find questions about your interests, for example "air quality", "remote sensing" or "insect".

You cannot use Boolean search operators (AND, OR, NOT).

Use the down arrow in each column to sort your search results alphabetically.

Many SMNR themes are cross-cutting so search terms will appear across different chapters of SoNaRR.

You can also download an excel spreadsheet of the evidence needs, which contains extra information not in the table below:

Broad evidence need  Specific evidence need  SMNR aim Why is this an evidence need?  Ecosystems and themes involved
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What is the condition of existing mountains, moorland, and heath habitat in land management units, measured against the yardstick set by Common Standards Monitoring?  Aim 1
Aim 2
We have little knowledge of the current health of the ecosystems across much of the Mountains, moorlands and heath resource and must extrapolate from very few samples. A "broad and shallow" approach is needed to complement the "narow and deep" approach of existing terrrestrial monitoring. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, heath habitat condition? Aim 1
Aim 2
Given knowledge of condition, we need to know whether current management is changing that condition and what other factors including climate change, grazing, pollution, recreation, are negatively impacting the features. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What can be done to improve the ecosystem resilience of existing mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem? Where are the opportunities for heathland ecosystem restoration?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Many upland heathlands are reduced to acid grassland but can be restored by appropriate grazing. Many lowland heathlands are fragments of former extent. Can we identify target areas for connection and restoration? What soil conditions would permit this and can we achieve them? Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What can be done to improve the ecosystem resilience of existing mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem? What are the barriers to peatland restoration for landowners? How can these be addressed? Aim 2
Aim 3
Welsh Government policy is to restore appropriate management on all Welsh peatlands. This may require hydrological rewetting, nutrient reduction and biomass harvesting grazing or mowing or other interventions which may be challenging, especially where peatlands are divided between multiple landholdings or land managers are unfamiliar with the techniques. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What are the potential and actual effects of "Challenge Events", for example mountain marathons, on upland habitats and species?  Aim 2
Aim 3
Challenge events such as mountain marathons could cause direct impacts such as erosion, soil compaction and indirect impacts such as disturbance, displacement, changes in land management, ancillary effects such as greenhouse gas emissions. But the nature, extent and significance of any impact is poorly understood. This information is required to inform our advice on the planning of these events to ensure avoidance and mitigation of any negative impact on natural resources. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal Margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What is the long term impact of mowing blanket bog on mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Drainage of blanket bog often led to an increase in ericoid, for example heather, cover/height and a decline in typical blanket bog breeding bird species for example curlew, golden plover, dunlin. Despite restoration of hydrology, ericoids continue to dominate while the bogs recover and mowing is advocated to control it, with potential to conflict with natural bog development. We need to assess the impact of mowing, which is not traditional in this habitat, on the long-term prospect for recovery. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Ecosystem resilience 
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What is the long term impact of mowing dwarf scrub heath on ecosystem resilience in mountains, moorland, and heath? Aim 1
Aim 2
Dwarf shrub heath was often traditionally grazed and burnt, but with changes in grazing practice for example the loss of cattle and landowner reluctance to burn due to regulatory requirements, potential damage to wet heath and bog, and public perception, mowing is increasingly advocated to break up large swards and create firebreaks and access for stock. Lack of fire-induced Calluna germination coupled with mulching with unharvested material may change the nature of the vegetation. A review of current knowledge and possible experimental manipulation is required to enable appropriate advice to be provided. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Ecosystem resilience 
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What is the long-term trend of soil fertility and base-status in montane habitats and what are the drivers of change? Aim 1
Aim 2
Upland soils once supported Neolithic agriculture but would struggle to grow crops today. Land management, climate change and acid rain all affect the evolution of upland soils but is poorly documented. The use of lime on upland pasture and ffridd may have been widespread in historic time but is now rare. A review of upland soil development and likely changes under future landscape options is required to enable an understanding of this resource. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? How does biodiversity in new woodlands in the Uplands compare with that in ancient woodlands in the Uplands? Where there are differences, what are the drivers?


Aim 1
Aim 2
The biodiversity distinction between ancient and secondary woodland has long been recognised, though much of this is based on evidence from lowland woods and is less clear in upland and Atlantic areas. The ability of secondary woodland in upland areas to assimilate and restore ancient woodland biota is dependent on many factors for example landuse history, proximity to ancient woodland, age of planting or regeneration. To design better woodlands for the future, evidence of the the relative importance of these factors is required. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What can be done to improve the ecosystem resilience of existing mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem? How can we address the Molinia caerulea or Juncus squarrosus monocultures? Are there mechanical or chemical mechanisms of control to use in tandem with grazing management? Aim 1
Aim 2
Purple moor grass Molinia caerulea and heath rush Juncus squarrosus can form persistent monocultures on peatland, undermining bog restoration measures. Methods for addressing this need to be reviewed, trialled and reported. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
How can we define and evaluate the complexity of Ffridd habitat?  What are the key elements of ffridd and what guidelines can we suggest for securing an appropriate balance of vegetation? Aim 1 Ffridd is a distinctive and often dynamic mozaic of pasture, heathland, flush, woodland, wood-pasture, bracken and rock straddling the upland boundary where management changes reflect agricultural fortunes. Dominance by any one component may be undesirable. A better understanding of the functional relationships of the elements of ffridd should lead to better advice on management of this landscape.  Mountains, moorland, and heath
Woodland
Semi-natural grassland
Biodiversity
What ecosystem services does the mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem provide? Where are the areas of shallow peat, <50cm, and organic soils found in Wales? Aim 1 Deep peat, more than 50cm deep, is mapped in Wales but there is also a substantial carbon resource and biodiversity function in shallower peat and organo-mineral soils. Locating this feature is a step towards protecting and managing that resource. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil 
What ecosystem services does the mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem provide? What is the relative carbon-sequestration benefit of shallow peat and organic soil or rapid forestry and how does this vary according to timescale for multiple crops, and timber afteruse? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
The balance of benefit for carbon sequestration between afforestation or retention of shallow peat and organo-mineral soils is complex and varies depending on assumptions, including timescales, cropping cycles, climate impacts and timber afteruse (Carbon sequestration). Current studies are often contradictory and further theoretical and emirical evidence and review is required to inform policy. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
What can be done to improve the ecosystem resilience of existing mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem? How can diffuse pollution into lowland wetlands be reduced? Aim 2
Aim 3
Nutrient pollution is a major cause of decline in lowland peatlands via both waterborne (surface and groundwater) and aerial deposition. Are buffer zones effective and how extensive should they be? Source-pathway- receptor studies are required to determine best practice. This is likely to be site-specific due to varying hydrological conditions although a general review of practice elsewhere may lead to insights. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Waste
Ecosystem resilience
Enclosed farmland
What are the trends and drivers in mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem resilience? What is restricting the recovery of arctic-alpine plants? Have there been genetic bottlenecks, is there a need to boost or migrate populations, or do we need land management changes? Aim 1
Aim 2
Wales supports a distinctive suite of arctic-alpine flora and fauna. While threatened by climate change, its resilience and ability to resist or respond to change is compromised by past and present landuse, pollution, and isolation. Ecological studies of these species are required to determine the key factors to address. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Biodiversity
Ecosystem resilience
What can be done to improve the ecosystem resilience of existing mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem? Where are the important locations for river lichens? Aim 1 There is much to be favoured in extending woodland cover along watercourses. But the degree to which this will damage upland riverine lichens particularly through increased shading is uncertain; many are shade intolerant. Though dappled shade from sparse tree cover may be less damaging, shade from solid woodland blocks could seriously damage this resource. Location is the key to managing this feature. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Biodiversity
What ecosystem services does the mountains, moorland, and heath ecosystem provide? What is the greenhouse gas balance of transition mire and quaking bog? How does its carbon sequestration compare to methane emissions? Aim 1
Aim 2
There is good evidence of the important greenhouse gas functions including storage, sequestration and emissions of acid raised bog and blanket mire and some understanding of basic fen, but little or no evidence of the role of transtion mire nor poor-fen in greenhouse gas flux. Studies are urgently required to fill this void in understanding and to consider the greenhouse gas policy implications alongside biodiversity values. Mountains, moorland, and heath
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
What ecosystem services does the marine ecosystem provide? How can habitat condition affect carbon sequestration potential in marine and coastal blue carbon habitats? Aim 2
Aim 3
The evidence would better our understanding of how this ecosystem service is altered by habitat condition and allow us to better understand the carbon sequestration of marine habitats Marine
Coastal Margins
Biodiversity
Ecosystem resilience
Climate Change
What evidence or data are needed to support implementation of the Marine Plan?”  What data are available to update the current distribution of invasive non-native species in Welsh waters? Aim 1
Aim 2
This would improve data sets on the distribution of marine non-native species in Welsh Waters and inform our understanding of the impact of this pressure on the marine ecosystem  Marine
Coastal Margins
Invasive non-native species
Biodiversity
What evidence or data are needed to support implementation of the Marine Plan?”  Can we produce improved maps of Annex I subtidal habitat, primarily Reef and Sandbank, using data currently available? Aim 1
Aim 2
Multibeam data from third parties is available that would improve our evidence and maps of Annex I habitats and broad-scale habitats Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What evidence or data are needed to support implementation of the Marine Plan?”  What are the distributions, abundances, and population structures of marine fish species in Welsh waters? Aim 1
Aim 2
Data on marine fish is lacking for this assessment. We need data on the abundance, distribution, population structure and movements of fish in Welsh waters to develop a baseline for the SoNaRR assessment. The evidence need would build on Ellis et al (2012) and would inform our work in many areas Marine
Freshwater
Coastal Margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What evidence or data are needed to support implementation of the Marine Plan?”  What are the seascapes and ecosystem cultural services of the Welsh coast?  Aim 3
Aim 4 
Complete the coverage of local seascape character assessment in Wales:
1. spatialise areas
2. identify key characteristics of character for each area
3.  relate to LANDMAP
4. create ecosystem cultural services typology
5. attribute relevent services to relevent seascapes. Work fills missing gaps (spatial, topical) - required so NRW can more effectively provide evidence for SoNaRR and advise in case work and highlight trends and issues for policy development. Current coverage approx 65%, plus some updating needed to bring existing assessment into line with sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems language.
Marine
Freshwater
Coastal Margins
What is the impact of offshore renewable energy on the marine ecosystem and how do we mitigate negative impacts? What is the efficacy of acoustic deterrent devices on marine mammals, birds and fish? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Important evidence to balance priorities for provisioning ecosystem services through renewable energy resources with maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, specifically mobile species. To inform our advice to developers. Marine
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the impact of offshore renewable energy on the marine ecosystem and how do we mitigate negative impacts? What is the impact of wave and tidal renewable energy devices on mobile species behaviour and what is the risk of collision? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Important evidence to balance priorities for provisioning ecosystem services through renewable energy resources with maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, specifically mobile species. To inform our advice to developers. Marine
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the impact of offshore renewable energy on the marine ecosystem and how do we mitigate negative impacts? What methods can be employed to monitor wave and tidal devices for mobile species behaviour and collision? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Important evidence to balance priorities for provisioning ecosystem services through renewable energy resources with maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, specifically mobile species. To inform our advice to developers. Marine
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the impact of offshore renewable energy on the marine ecosystem and how do we mitigate negative impacts? Can renewable energy projects have population level effects on mobile species? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Important evidence to balance priorities for provisioning ecosystem services through renewable energy resources with maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, specifically mobile species. To inform our advice to developers. Marine
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the impact of offshore renewable energy on the marine ecosystem and how do we mitigate negative impacts? What is the potential for noise disturbance of marine mammals in Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Important evidence to balance priorities for provisioning ecosystem services through renewable energy resources with maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, specifically mobile species. To inform our advice to developers. Marine
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the impact of offshore renewable energy on the marine ecosystem and how do we mitigate negative impacts? What is the likely efficacy of noise abatement measures in the hydrographical conditions in Welsh waters? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Important evidence to balance priorities for provisioning ecosystem services through renewable energy resources with maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, specifically mobile species. To inform our advice to developers. Marine
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
How resilient is the marine ecosystem and what are the drivers of change in marine ecosystem resilience?  What are the extent, severity and impacts of diffuse water pollution in the marine ecosystem? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
To inform our understanding of and advice on building resilient marine ecosystems. This would investigate the extent to which diffuse water pollution, from both agriculture and urban sources, including point sources and in combination effects, affects MPA condition. This could also include a case study in Milford Haven. Marine
Freshwater
Coastal Margins
Urban
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Waste
Water efficiency
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity 
How resilient is the marine ecosystem and what are the drivers of change in marine ecosystem resilience?  What are the causes of the decline in Milford Haven maerl bed? Aim 1
Aim 2
To inform our understanding of and advice on building resilient marine ecosystems. Monitoring has shown a decline in the health of the maerl bed in Milford Haven. Work is needed to identify the cause or causes of this decline.  Marine
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Biodiversity
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
How resilient is the marine ecosystem and what are the drivers of change in marine ecosystem resilience?  What is driving the decline of Kittiwake in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
To inform our understanding of and advice on building resilient marine ecosystems. Kittiwake is an iconic seabird in Wales and a feature of a number of SSSIs and Skomer and Skokholm and the Seas off Pembrokeshire SPA. According to the most recent results from the seabird census there has been a 40% decline in Kittiwake populations in Wales. The main theory is that it is climate change driven but Kittiwakes eat similar prey species to auks which have doubled their population over the last 15-20 years. A project is needed to collate existing information as well as setting up various monitoring e.g. camera traps, which could give information about numerous colonies around Wales  Marine
Coastal Margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
How resilient is the marine ecosystem and what are the drivers of change in marine ecosystem resilience?  How to determine sustainable limits for seaweed harvesting from the wild? Aim 1
Aim 4
To inform our understanding of and advice on building resilient marine ecosystems. Review of current evidence and methodology for managing seaweed harvesting. Deciding whether any species are not sustainable to harvest and develop methodology for setting sustainable limits for seaweed gathering/harvesting in other areas. This evidence need is particularly aimed at commercial harvest but with increase in recreational gathering it is important to protect some areas that are particularly important for seaweeds Marine
Coastal Margins
Biodiversity
What can be done to maintain and enhance marine ecosystem resilience? How to create new habitat, other than saltmarsh. For example mudflats, sandflats, mixed shores, seagrass beds? Aim 1
Aim 2
To inform our understanding of and advice on building resilient marine ecosystems. There is a need to develop methods to create new intertidal and subtidal habitat. At present there are reliable methods available only for creation of saltmarsh habitat. Projects are needed at a variety of different scales, from small scale developments of techniques like propagation of seagrass and algae to larger scale habitat creation trials Marine
Coastal Margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What can be done to maintain and enhance marine ecosystem resilience? What are the opportunities to maintain and enhance marine ecosystem resilience? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To inform our understanding of and advice on building resilient marine ecosystems. Interpreting exitsing data sets to provide strategic overview, for example spatial maps, of key opportunities to maintain or improve resilience of marine ecosystems in Welsh waters. This is an area of action coming out of Area Statements, see marine planning and ecosystem resilience themes.  Marine
Coastal Margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What can be done to improve the resilience of woodlands in Wales and the flow of ecosystem services from them?  What are the barriers in Wales preventing more woodland, particularly native woodland, being brought into planned management to improve resilience and the flow of ecosystem services, including well-being benefits, from them? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Woodlands not in planned mangement are likely to be generating sub-optimal resilience, ecosystem services and well-being benefits. This evidence will help to inform future policy and delivery approaches.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What can be done to improve the resilience of woodlands in Wales and the flow of ecosystem services from them?  What type of interventions could accelerate bringing more woodlands, especially native woodland, into planned management to improve resilience and the flow of ecosystem services, including well-being benefits, from them? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Woodlands not in planned mangement are likely to be generating sub-optimal resilience, ecosystem services and well-being benefits. This evidence will help to inform future policy and delivery approaches.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
What can be done to improve the resilience of woodlands in Wales and the flow of ecosystem services from them?  What can be done to encourage woodland managers to accelerate adaptation to climate change and pests and diseases, beyond UK Forestry Standard requirements, to improve the resilience of woodland ecosystems?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Adaptation to climate change and pests and diseases needs to accelerate. Understanding the mechanisms available for example those tried and tested, as well as innovative, to accelerate adaptation to climate change and pests and diseases would help inform future policy and delivery approaches.  Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
What impact do pests and diseases have on woodlands?  What is the distribution and impact of non-quarantine pest and disease outbreaks throughout Wales and how is this affected by climate change?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Declining tree health, due to climate change and compromised biosecurity arising from global trade, is a significant risk to future ecosystem service provision, resilience and well-being. We do not know enough about the distribution and impact of non-quarantine pest and disease outbreaks across Wales. More information would help inform futuer policy and operational mangaement decisions. Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the condition of woodlands in Wales?  What is the proportion and condition of Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites (PAWs) that have been restored, or are under restoration, throughout Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
A commitment to PAWS restoration is contained within Welsh Government's Woodlands for Wales strategy, but information on the proportion and condition of PAWS under restoration is sparse, particularly outside the Welsh Government Woodland Estate. This evidence would help inform future assessments of resilience and support policy and operational management decisions.   Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the extent of woodland cover in Wales?  What are the most reliable methods to measure woodland cover in Wales as a result of natural processes, that is, natural colonization by trees, which takes place when grazing pressures are reduced?   Aim 1
Aim 2
Natural colonisation by trees can support and improve resilience, and improve biodiversity outcomes in some locations. Being able to identify the extent of natural colonization by trees would support improve assessment of the stocks of natural resources.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What is the extent of woodland cover in Wales?  What is the effectiveness of natural colonisation by trees as an approach to increasing woodland cover in Wales, specifically to result in the establishment of mature trees which cover more than 20 per cent by area, are more than 0.5 ha in size and a minimum of 20m wide as per National Forestry Inventory and Forestry Commission? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
If natural colonisation by trees is effective (resulting in establishment of woodland that meets the National Forest Inventory definition), this could increase the extent of total woodland cover in Wales, with knock-on benefits for resilience, the provision of ecosystem services and well-being benfits.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
What is the extent of woodland cover in Wales?  What are the most reliable methods to measure, determine and report trends in net woodland cover in Wales, that is, woodland creation minus permanent woodland loss?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
There is a concern that net woodland cover is reducing but there is currently no reliable data to assess this.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What is the condition of woodlands in Wales?  What do existing data and evidence sets tell us about the condition of ancient woodland in Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Ancient woodlands are some of our most valuable and biologically diverse. More information on their condition of both statutory and non-statutory woodlands would help inform future policy and management options.  Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the condition of woodlands in Wales?  What is the impact of nutrient enrichment due to diffuse pollution and adjacent land use on the ground flora of woodlands in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
The ground flora of woodlands is particularly senstive to the effects of nutrient enrichment. An up-to-date assessment of nutrient enrichment extent, impacts, and risks would help inform future assessments of sustainable management of natural resources.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Air quality
Biodiversity
Ecosystem resilience
What is role of timber in supporting a regenerative economy in Wales?  What are the interventions needed to support the development of a more commercial market for Welsh-grown hardwood timber, to support a regenerative economy and increase investment and confidence in the sector? Aim 1
Aim 4
The commercial market for Welsh grown hardwood is currently small and fragmented. This is an under-utilised part of the Welsh woodland resource. Understanding the specific barriers and opportunities would support the move to a regenerative economy.  Woodland
What is role of timber in supporting a regenerative economy in Wales?  What interventions are needed to increase the use of Welsh grown timber in construction in Wales, to support decarbonisation and a regenerative economy?  Aim 4 The use of more Welsh grown timber in construction would generate multiple ecosystem services and well-being benefits. Understanding exactly how all players need to come together to achieve this would help inform future policy and delivery mechanisms.  Woodland
Energy
Climate change
What is role of timber in supporting a regenerative economy in Wales?  What is the contribution that Welsh-grown timber makes to a regenerative economy and the more efficient use of natural resources in Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
We have reliably information on timber flows into and out of the UK, but data on Welsh grown timber contributing to a regenerative economy in Wale is lacking. This evidence would help inform future policy and delivery options.  Woodland
Urban
Land use and soil
Waste
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
What is role of timber in supporting a regenerative economy in Wales?  What supply chain developments could be progressed in Wales to support the more widespread use of engineered wood products to support a low-carbon and regenerative economy in Wales? Aim 4 There is significant potential for engineered wood products to suport a low carbon and regenerative economy in Wales but supply chain developments are likely to be needed. Undrestanding what these are would help inform future policy and delivery options.  Woodland
What is role of timber in supporting a regenerative economy in Wales?  What is the feasability of using Lignin, a complex compound found in woody plants that is typically sourced from paper pulping waste, to manufacture bio-based plastics in Wales?  Aim 4 This is a regenerative economy option linked to woodland management, and could suport green growth and recovery. Understanding the feasibiltiy of this option would help inform future policy and strategic delivery.  Woodland
How can ecosystem trade-offs and synergies be quantified to support the sustainable mangement of natural resources?  What reliable methods could be used to quantify the ecosystem trade-offs and synergies associated with woodlands as part of land use change to support the sustainable management of natural resources and respond to the climate and nature emergencies?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
The management of synergies and trade-offs is key to understanding future land use change options. Many assessments are currently subjective: being able to quantify trade-offs and synergies would aid decision making and future policy direction.  Woodland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
What can be done to improve the resilience of woodlands in Wales and the flow of ecosystem services from them?  What is the genetic diversity of tree species in Wales and how can we use this information to inform an assessment of the resilience of woodlands in Wales, now and in the future?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Genetic diversity, alongside species and structural diversity, is key to assessing the resilience of woodland ecosystems. There is currently very little data about the genetic diversity of Welsh woodlands. More information would help inform future assessments of resilience.  Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What can be done to improve the resilience of woodlands in Wales and the flow of ecosystem services from them?  What is the effect of tree species diversity on woodland productivity in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 4
Tree species diversification is key to improving resilience but its impact on woodland productivity for timber in Wales is not well understood. This information would be helpful to suport discussions about timber's role in supporting a regenerative economy.  Woodland
What is the economic contribution of the woodland sector in Wales?  What is the Gross Value Added (GVA) contribution from the woodland sector that includes woodland-based recreation and other woodland-dependent businesses?  Aim 3
Aim 4
Undestanding the wider contribution (GVA) of the woodland sector would support more accurate assessment of the value of cultural ecosystem services and well-being benefits, and inform policy and management options.  Woodland
Land use and soil
What is the current extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? What has changed in the extent and distribution of semi-natural grassland since the Phase 1 habitat survey of late last century? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The Phase 1 Habitat survey is old and remote sensing is mostly poor as recording grassland extent Semi-natural grassland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Biodiversity
Coastal margins
Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
What is the current extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? What is the current extent and distribution of the different forms of semi-natural grassland? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The Phase 1 Habitat survey is old and remote sensing is mostly poor as recording grassland extent Semi-natural grassland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Biodiversity
Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
What is the current extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Have agri-environment scheme measures been successful in creating new semi-natural grassland in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Agri-environment has been one of the main grassland creation mechanisms in Wales Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What is the current extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Have grassland creation projects been successful in creating new semi-natural grassland in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. A number of projects have included some grassland creation, but long-term success or otherwise of these is often not recorded Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the current extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Can remote sensing be refined to accurately map all the different forms of semi-natural grassland? Aim 1
Aim 2
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Remote sensing has thus far been mostly poor as recording grassland extent, but is continually being refined and becoming more accurate. Semi-natural grassland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the current extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Can exisiting National Vegetation Classification and other surveys be brought together to map the extent of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Recent detailed terrestrial survey data are somewhat disperate and some of it needs quality control Semi-natural grassland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
What is the current condition of semi-natural grassland in Wales? What is the condition of grassland SSSI features on statutory protected sites? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Only a minority of grassland SSSI features have received recent detailed monitoring. Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the current condition of semi-natural grassland in Wales? What is the condition of grassland habitat outside statutory protected sites? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Very little is known about grassland condition outside SSSIs. Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the current condition of semi-natural grassland in Wales? What are the barriers preventing achieving favourable or good condition on statutory sites? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Only a minority of grassland SSSI features have received recent detailed monitoring. Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the current condition of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Have agri-environment scheme measures been successful in improving condition of semi-natural grassland? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Agri-environment has been one of the main mechanisms in Wales for maintaining and improving semi-natural grassland condition Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the current condition of semi-natural grassland in Wales? Have grassland projects been successful in improving condition of semi-natural grassland? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. A number of projects in Wales have included measures for maintaining and improving semi-natural grassland condition; results have not always been adequately recorded Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What mechanisms are needed to restore semi-natural grassland condition? What mechanisms are needed to restore semi-natural grassland condition inside statutory sites? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Different mechanisms need to be investigated, including funding streams Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What mechanisms are needed to restore semi-natural grassland condition? What mechanisms are needed to restore semi-natural grassland condition outside statutory sites? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Different mechanisms need to be investigated, including funding streams Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends in species diversity in semi-natural grassland in Wales? What are the recent population trends in uncommon grassland vascular plants, including section 7 priority species? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Diversity is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Past declines in grassland vascular plants are documented, but recent trends less well understood Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends in species diversity in semi-natural grassland in Wales? What are the recent population trends in uncommon grassland invertebrates, including section 7 priority species? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Diversity is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Past declines in grassland invertebrates are documented, but recent trends less well understood Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What mechanisms are needed to maintain or enhance semi-natural grassland diversity? What evidence is needed to ensure the effective conservation of semi-natural grassland species? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Diversity is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Some species require specific management for populations to be stable or expand, but there are gaps in knowledge for some species Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends in species and genetic diversity in semi-natural grassland in Wales? What is the effect of extinction debt and low genetic diversity caused by semi-natural grassland loss and fragmentation on uncommon or threatened semi-natural grassland species and which species are particularly vulnerable? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Diversity is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Due top past declines, many populations of Section 7 and other uncommon species are very small and highly fragmented, the effects of which are often unclear Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends in species diversity in semi-natural grassland in Wales? When is it appropriate to introduce uncommon or threatened semi-natural grassland species to new sites? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Diversity is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. Where a species has been lost from a site or where grassland resilience has been improved by creation of new sites, uncommon species may not colonise or recolonise naturally, but when should artificial introduction be considered?  Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Are the ecosystem service benefits of semi-natural grassland accurately quantified? How is soil carbon storage and sequestration in semi-natural grassland affected by 1. different management regimes, 2. different grassland types, 3. species diversity, 4. different species groups for example legumes, forbs, grasses? Aim 3 Grasslands store significant amounts of soil carbon, but the evidence is unclear how it is effected by specific management practises, including mob grazing, and how much it varies under different forms of grassland and different levels of plant or fungal diversity Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Climate change
Biodiversity
Are the ecosystem service benefits of semi-natural grassland accurately quantified? What is the importance of varied root depths and the role of deep rooted perennials on carbon storage and sequestration in semi-natural grassland? Aim 3 Semi-natural grasslands support a greate range of species with a much greater range of root depths than improved, intenively managed grasslands. Deep rooting species (some go to >2m) have a role in carbon storage at depth, but more research is needed. Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Climate change
Are the ecosystem service benefits of semi-natural grassland accurately quantified? What is the long term impact of planting trees on shallow peats and or organo-mineral soils on carbon storage and sequestration in soil and vegetation? Aim 3 Planting trees on deep peat soils is thought to lead to significant loss of soil carbon, but the effect on soil carbon of planting on grasslands over organo-mineral soils, including peats of up to 50 cm, and in particular the overall carbon balance in the long term, is less well understood. Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Climate change
Are the ecosystem service benefits of semi-natural grassland accurately quantified? What is the effect of 1. different management regimes, 2. different sward structures, 3. different grassland types, 4. species diversity, 5. different species groups for example legumes, forbs, grasses, on water regulation in semi-natural grassland? Aim 3 Grasslands can play an important role in water regulation, but the evidence is unclear how it is effected by specific management practises, and how much it varies under different forms of grassland and different levels of plant diversity, bearing in mind that species vary in their capacity to absorb and retain water. Semi-natural grassland
Water efficiency
Biodiversity
Are the ecosystem service benefits of semi-natural grassland accurately quantified? How does meat reared on semi-natural grasslands vary in terms of quality, taste and health benefits compared to that from intensively managed grassland?  Aim 3 Meat produced from semi-natural grasslands has a higher nutrient content and lower fat levels than that produced from agriculturally improved grasslands, but lower levels of protein and energy. However, more research is needed, particularly with regard to health benefits and taste. Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
What is the impact of climate change on semi-natural grasslands? What is the long time impact of climate change on the different types of semi-natural grassland? Aim 3
Aim 4
Grasslands are affected by climate change, such as from summer droughting and hydrological changes, but more research is needed on the long term effects on species composition of different types of grassland. Semi-natural grassland
Woodland
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the impact of climate change on semi-natural grasslands? What is the long-term impact of climate change on different semi-natural grassland species, including northern species at the southern end of their geographic distribution? Aim 3
Aim 4
Grasslands are affected by climate change, such as from summer droughting and hydrological changes, butmore research is needed on the effects on specific species. Semi-natural grassland
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the impact of climate change on semi-natural grasslands? How will climate change affect the ecosystem service delivery of grassland, such as levels of carbon storage and sequestration in a warming climate? Aim 3
Aim 4
More research is needed on the effects of, for example, higher temperatures and rainfall, on soil carbon levels and other ecosystem services, including water regulation. Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Climate change
What is the impact of atmospheric pollution on semi-natural grasslands? Are the current atmospheric nitrogen Critical Loads for the different forms of semi-natural grassland correct? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Atmospheric nitrogen Critical Load levels are set for most different forms of grassland, but negative effects have been recorded at below these Critical Load levels. Some forms of grassland lack a formal Critical Load. Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Air quality
What is the impact of atmospheric pollution on semi-natural grasslands? Which semi-natural grassland species, including bryophytes and lichens, are particularly vulnerable to atmospheric nitrogen pollution? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Evidence of the negative effacts of atmospheric nitrogen and ammonia on grassland plant species is increasing, but more research is needed. Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Air quality
Biodiversity
How can the ecosystem resilience of semi-natural grasslands be improved? Where should new semi-natural grasslands be created to best improve grassland connectivity and ecosystem resilience? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
New grasslands will need to be created if grassland ecosystems are to be made more resilient. More research is needed to help decide where these should be located. Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
How can the ecosystem resilience of semi-natural grasslands be improved? Where should new semi-natural grasslands be created to have most ecosystem service benefit, for example carbon storage or sequestration; water regulation and flood prevention; pollination supply; education; leisure; landscape? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Semi-natural grasslands can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services. New sites should be located to increase ecosystem service delivery, for example to help regulate water supply on floodplains and pollinator supply near to cropland. Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Water efficiency
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
How can the ecosystem resilience of semi-natural grasslands be improved? Where and when should upland and upland fringe acid grasslands be a) retained, b) converted to other forms of grassland, for example limed to create neutral hay meadows, c) restored to heathland, d) planted with trees?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Acid grassland in the uplands is not a Priority Habitat and is often subject to land-use change proposals. Correct decisions need to be made on where to: retain upland and ffridd acid grassland for biodiversity (for example chough feeding areas or grassland fungi); convert to more species-rich grassland; revert to heathland; or plant trees/woodland.  Semi-natural grassland
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Ecosystem resilience
How can the ecosystem resilience of semi-natural grasslands be improved? What is the impact of extensive tree planting on resilience of semi-natural grassland and other ecosystems in uplands, including the impact on threatened breeding birds? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
The implications of very extensive and expanding tree planting on acid grassland in the uplands needs more consideration.  Semi-natural grassland
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Does our urban green infrastructure deliver sufficient ecosystem services? Do urban areas have enough trees of the right kind in the right places to be sustainable for people and nature? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Trees deliver multiple ecosystem services in a single place. Tracking trends in their distribution and canopy cover shows whether an urban area is becoming more or less sustainable. Urban
Land use and soil
Air quality
Woodland
Climate change
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the threats to urban trees delivering their full suite of ecosystem goods and services? How do we mitigate these threats?  What pests and diseases threaten the most abundant urban tree species, and what countermeasures are available? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Trees deliver multiple ecosystem services in a single place. It may take 60 years for a replacement tree to deliver sufficient ecosystem goods and services to pay for the cost of planting, so maintaining the good health of urban trees is crucial. Urban
Woodland
Invasive non-native species
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Does our urban green infrastructure deliver sufficient ecosystem services? Do urban areas have enough green spaces of the right kind in the right places to be sustainable for people and nature? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Green spaces are the base unit of urban green infrastructure. Knowing their distribution and function is the foundation for assessing the liveability of urban areas. Urban
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the air in urban areas clean enough to allow people to maintain good health? Are the levels of PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) within legal limits where people, especially vulnerable groups like young children, are most likely to be exposed? Aim 3 Urban life is not sustainable if polluted air makes people sick. Whilst general levels of PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are acceptable, we know they actually vary over distances of less than 1m, so more detailed monitoring is required. Urban
Air quality

What is the impact of climate change in urban areas on human health in Wales?

What are the likely impacts on human health of heatwaves in urban areas in Wales?
Aim 3
Aim 4
Current heat vulnerability maps are too coarse to accurately assess overheating danger to vulnerable residences and to plan how to defeat it (for example by planting individual trees in strategic places). Modelling and mapping is required at the level of individual streets. Urban
Air quality
Climate change
Have we got enough permeable surfaces and surface water detention/retention features in Wales' urban areas? What is the change in extent of permeable surfaces and surface water detention or retention features in Wales's urban areas? Are our current permeable surfaces and surface water detention or retention features in Wales's urban areas able to cope under future climate change rainfall predictions?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Increases in the extent of sealed surfaces in an urban area will lead to an increase in the volume of storm water run off, and likely increase in flood risk. Decreases in the extent of permeable surfaces and detention/retention features will reduce the ability of soil moisture to replenish after rainfall and may lead to increased susceptibility to drought. Urban
Land use and soil
Climate change
Are accessible urban green spaces of sufficient quality to meet peoples' needs for health and well-being? What is the state of urban green spaces in Wales? An assessment of the quality of management of publicly accessible green space which has not been entered into the Green Flag or Blue Flag Award schemes.  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
People need to access urban green space daily to remain well, but poorly managed urban green space deters people from using it. It also fails to deliver other ecosystem servies such as heat regulation and air pollution control. Systematic sampling and monitoring will show if urban green space is being managed sustainably. Currently, only a minority of urban green spaces are assessed for management quality (Green, and Blue Flag Awards) Urban
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Are accessible green spaces of sufficient quality to meet peoples' needs for health and well-being? What is the impact of public opinion on their use of local green space in urban areas of Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
People need to access urban green space daily to remain well, but poorly managed urban green space deters people from using it. It also fails to deliver other ecosystem servies such as heat regulation and air pollution control. Systematic sampling and monitoring will show if urban green space is being managed sustainably Urban
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Are accessible green spaces of sufficient quality to meet peoples' needs for health and well-being? What is the impact of changes in local government spending on the quality of management and use of urban green space in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Most publicly accessible green space is managed by local authorities and declines in funding for managing green space have been directly linked to declines in management standards, ultimately leading to green space becoming "no go zones" functionally inaccessible to people. Black and minority ethnic groups are particularly reliant on public urban green space, so a decline in the management standards could have a disproportionate effect on these groups. Urban
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the trajectory for biodiversity in urban Wales compared to semi-urban and rural areas? Where in Wales is biodiversity in decline and what is the driver? What are the trends in species which are strongly associated with urban environments compared to the wider landscape? Aim 1
Aim 2
Abundance and distribution trends of species associated with urban enviroments which may indicate the health of the ecosystem (for example hedgehogs, swifts) can help us understand if urban environments are becoming better or worse at sustaining these species. Current data largely reflects only where effort has been expended to record key species, rather than the abundance of those species. This should help public bodies fulfill their duties under Section 6 of the Environment Act and to address the Biodiversity Emergency.

Urban
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the trajectory for biodiversity in urban Wales compared to semi-urban and rural areas? Where in Wales is biodiversity in decline and what is the driver? What is the baseline biodiversity within urban areas of Wales? And what ecosystem services does urban biodiversity provide? Aim 1
Aim 2
To understand the ecosystem services provided by urban ecosystems we need to know the baseline levels of biodiversity. Biodiversity in urban ecosystems is often overlooked. Reliable and replicable estimates are needed in place of acedotal information to provide us with the evidence to enhance or maintain biodiversity within our urban ecosystems. Understanding this at all levels of biodiversity (ecosystem, species, genetic) would be desirable. Urban
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the trajectory for biodiversity in urban Wales compared to semi-urban and rural areas? Where in Wales is biodiversity in decline and what is the driver? What is the trend in airborne insect abundance and diversity in urban areas compared to in the wider landscape?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Insect abundance in the wider landscape has declined drastically. Comparing insect abundance in urban areas will indicate if urban areas are being managed more, or less sustainably than the wider landscape. This could help develop hypotheses to test why declines are happening, and how to arrest them. Focussing on insects as this is currently lacking.  Urban
Biodiversity
Climate change
What are the trends in the consumption of resources and production of waste from urban areas?

Is the building industry becoming more or less sustainable in its use of materials, and its production of waste? Aim 4 The building industry is a major consumer of materials and energy, and produces significant amounts of waste. Most of their activity relates to urban areas. Data on this is available at a UK level, but it is harder to obtain for Wales. Urban
Land use and soil
Waste
Water efficiency
Energy
Climate change
What are the trends in the consumption of resources and production of waste from urban areas?

Is the building industry becoming more or less sustainable in its consumption of energy and generation of greenhouse gasses? Aim 4 The building industry is a major consumer of energy, and generates significant amounts of greenhouse gas from its supply chain including the production of cement and steel . Most of their activity relates to urban areas. Data on this is available at a UK level, but it is harder to obtain for Wales. Urban
Land use and soil
Waste
Water efficiency
Energy
Climate change
Are all the modified habitats of Wales resilient?  How diverse are agricultural and timber crops across Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Biodiversity
Are all the modified habitats of Wales resilient?  In Wales, how has land-use classification changed since 2010 and what is the extent and spatial-arrangement of modified habitats?  Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Are all the protected sites (N2K, SSSI, SPA, Ramsar) of Wales resilient? What is the extent and spatial-arrangment of qualifying habitats in protected sites across Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Marine
Freshwater
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Are all the protected sites (N2K, SSSI, SPA, Ramsar) of Wales resilient? How has the condition of SSSI features, habitats and species, in Wales changed since the last rapid review in 2006? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
Are all the semi-natural habitats of Wales resilient? Has the diversity, extent, and connectivity of semi-natural habitats in Wales changed since the last Phase 1 habitat survey 1997? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
Are all the semi-natural habitats of Wales resilient? What is the condition of semi-natural habitats in Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Semi-natural grassland
Coastal margins
Enclosed farmland
Are our soil resources resilient? What is the diversity, extent, condition and connectivity of soils classes across Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Biodiversity
Are the marine habitats of Wales resilient? What is the condition of sub-tidal habitats around Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Marine
Biodiversity
Are the marine habitats of Wales resilient? What is the condition of inter-tidal habitats around Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Marine
Biodiversity
Are the marine habitats of Wales resilient? What is the condition of Section 7 marine habitats and species marine in Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Marine
Biodiversity
Are the marine habitats of Wales resilient? What does marine habitat connectivity look like in Wales? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Marine
Biodiversity
Are the river habitats of Wales resilient? Has the diversity, extent, condition and connectivity of river habitats changed across Wales since the baseline River Habitat Survey in the 1990s? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Freshwater
Biodiversity
Are the urban habitats of Wales resilient? What types of urban habitats are found in Wales and where are they located? Aim 2 Ecosystem resilience evidence needs encompass several needs from the other ecosystem and theme chapters.  Ecosystem Resilience
Urban
Biodiversity
Is current regulatory practice supporting ecosystem resilience? What is the impact of exempt abstractions on water availability? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
 Abstractions below 20m3/day do not require a licence. We need to know the amount of water (legally abstracted but unlicensed) to identify potential impact hotspots.
There are 15k+ exempt abstractions in Wales registered with local authorities and drinking waer inspectorate.
Water efficiency
Freshwater
Climate change
Waste
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is current regulatory practice supporting ecosystem resilience? What is the impact of including previously exempt abstractions on local water balance calculations? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Previously, not all exempt abstractions over 20m3/d have been included in resource availability mapping. Inclusion will help to identify supply/demand hotspots and potential failure to meet Water Framework Directive standards. Water efficiency
Freshwater
Climate change
Waste
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is supply demand climate change resilient? What is the impact of climate change induced summer flow reductions on riverine ecosystems? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Current research indicates that average natural summer flows in rivers could drastically reduce by between 50 and 80 % across Wales. However, the potential impacts and the consequences of these changes on our riverine ecosystems and water resources requires further study. Water efficiency
Freshwater
Climate change
Waste
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is supply demand climate change resilient? What is the impact of climate change induced summer flow reductions on private water supplies? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
The extent of private (non-mains) water supply is currently unknown. Climate change may cause the water table and flows to reduce forcing a switch to mains supply. Water efficiency
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Is supply demand climate change resilient? How cost effective are new water efficiency technologies, such as those for rainwater harvesting or grey water recycling?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Improved understanding synergies/trade-offs of recycling water Water efficiency
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Is supply demand climate change resilient? What is the effect of using water efficiently on reduction in energy bills? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
In the UK 89% of household energy use is for heating water. Behavioural change to water use is likely to be more successful if linked to savings on energy bills.  Water efficiency
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Is supply demand climate change resilient? What changes are required to achieve water efficiencies in the agriculture sector? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Guidance on optimum use of water across agriculture and business sectors is out of date. There is a need to raise awareness of new technologies which can reduce water use. Water efficiency
Freshwater
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Semi-natural grassland
Waste
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
Is supply demand climate change resilient? What changes are required to achieve water efficiencies in the business and commerce sector? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Guidance on optimum use of water across agriculture and business sectors is out of date. There is a need to raise awareness of new technologies which can reduce water use. Water efficiency
Ecosystem resilience
Are building regulations climate change resilient? How can building regulations be improved to deliver water efficiencies as standard? Aim 2
Aim 4
Wales Low Carbon Action Plan launched in March 19 includes steps for social housing but has little on water efficiency. Water efficiency
Urban
Climate change
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Are building regulations climate change resilient? What is the impact of the "scale of use" on cost benefit of water efficency measures such as sustainable drainage?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Cost benefit analysis of Welsh Water's Greener Grangetown retro fitting sustainable drainage measures. Identify cost benefit of technologies and scale of use. Water efficiency
Urban
Climate change
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
How could payment for ecosystem services be used to encourage change to land management practices which deliver more efficient water use? How can incentives for using nature-based solutions, such changes to land management, improve water efficiency? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of upstream peatland will reduce runoff and improve base flows during dry periods. This will increase dilution of contaminants and reduce impacts on aquatic ecology and need for intense treatment at water treatment works. Water efficiency
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
Energy
Biodiversity
Climate change
Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
How can payment for ecosystem services improve water efficiency on farms? How could targeted payments deliver improved water efficiency on farms? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Licensed abstractions for irrigation and other agricultural needs may be restricted by Hands off Flow conditions during periods of low flows. Water abstracted during higher flows can be stored off-line for use during these periods, reducing abstraction pressures on watercourses. Water efficiency
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Energy
Biodiversity
Climate change
Enclosed Farmland
Ecosystem resilience
Is the methodology for calculating water use the best available? Are the current per person consumption of water calculations effectively reflecting household water use? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Current calculation of per capita consumption may not accurately reflect personal water use.  Water efficiency
Freshwater
Urban
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
What is the extent and impact of air pollution in urban and rural environments in Wales? Do we have sufficient monitoring evidence to understand the extent of ammonia pollution across Wales is accurate? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Ammonia is having a signficant impact on our ecosystems and our regulatory decisions are influenced by modelling. More comprehensive field data will improve our understanding of the actual impacts and ensure our evidence based decision making remains robust. Air Quality
Ecosystem resilience
What is the extent and impact of air pollution in urban and rural environments in Wales? Do we have sufficient monitoring evidence to understand the extent and impacts of ground level ozone pollution in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Ground level ozone causes health problems, decreases crop yields and damages the environment. Further monitoring is required to determine concentrations and impacts in both urban and rural environments.

Ground level ozone is not emitted directly from any source in significant quantities but formed by reactions between other pollutants. Progress in reducing nitrogen oxides emissions is likely to result in significant increase in ozone formation. More comprehensive field data will improve our understanding of the actual impact in both rural and urban areas. Currently there is only one site in Wales.
Air Quality
Ecosystem resilience
What is the impact of invasive non-native species of Interest to Wales on SoNaRR ecosystems, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide in Wales, currently and in the future? What is the impact of invasive non-native species of Interest to Wales on multiple ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide in Wales currently?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Review the current research findings on the current impact and predicted future impacts of invasive non-native species on ecosystems and their ecosystem services. To be repeated as more species are included. 

Research from other regions or countries may not reflect the impact that invasive non-native species have when they establish in Wales due to differences in topography, climate, etc.
Invasive non-native species
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Water efficiency
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the impact of invasive non-native species of Interest to Wales on SoNaRR ecosystems, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide in Wales, currently and in the future? What is the trend in distribution and impact of invasive non-native species of priority to Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
This would establish if any trend in terms of the impact on ecosystems, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide could be derived from the distribution data and the information we have about impacts. Invasive non-native species
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
How are invasive non-native species of interest to Wales being tackled in Wales? What action is being taken in Wales to address invasive non-native species issues on the ground and how effective and cost effective is this action?

Aim 3
Aim 4
This information would ensure that a more accurate picture of the current work being undertaken to tackle invasive non-native species in Wales was established. It will be necessary to try to standardise the collection of information (for example volunteer time) in order to better estimate the cost/value of the project. There may be issues in relation to the inconsistent way that the historic actions data has been collected which may inhibit what conclusions can be drawn from it.
Understanding how much effort and resources are being spent to tackle invasive non-native species in Wales and why the action is being taken will help to assess how well we are implementing sustainable management of natural resources.
Invasive non-native species
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the impact of invasive non-native species of Interest to Wales on SoNaRR ecosystems, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide in Wales, currently and in the future?
What are the barriers to improving the existing invasive non-native species records data and how can we overcome these? 
Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
This evidence will help to gain a more accurate indication of the affect that invasive non-native species of Interest (priority) to Wales are having on ecosystems and ecosystem services Invasive non-native species
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the impact of invasive non-native species of Interest to Wales on SoNaRR ecosystems, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide in Wales, currently and in the future? How do we measure the impact value for invasive non-native species of Interest or priority, to Wales on each ecosystems' resilience, and services, now and in the future? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
This will help to improve the approach of assessing the impact that invasive non-native species of Interests to Wales currently have or will have in the future on ecosystems in Wales, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide. Invasive non-native species
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
How effective is invasive non-native species management at helping to achieve the sustainable management of natural resources? What is the current level of awareness of invasive non-native species, biosecurity, and Great Britain biosecurity campaigns in the 1) general public and 2) key stakeholders?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Welsh Government need to have a clear evidence base to be able to determine if current action is being successful and what action may be needed in future to try to influence behaviour. This evidence would establish baseline and would help to support decisions about what action to take to change people’s behaviour and attitudes to invasive non-native species and biosecurity Invasive non-native species
Ecosystem resilience
What is the impact of invasive non-native species of Interest to Wales on SoNaRR ecosystems, their resilience and the ecosystem services they provide in Wales, currently and in the future? What is the impact of invasive non-native species on the Welsh economy and provisioning ecosystem services?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
As assessment of the economic impact of invasive non-native species in Wales is out of date by 10 years. Also, the impact particularly in relation to Japanese knotweed is likely to have increased considerably and this is not reflected in the current estimated costs. Invasive non-native species
Urban
Land use and soil
Air Quality
Waste
Water efficiency
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
What is the extent of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? Where have there been changes in habitat extent, or where are there ongoing declines, or changes in distribution of habitat in enclosed farmland?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Stocks of natural resources are a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The majority of the habitat extent data is based on partial surveys such as for parkland, traditional orchards, extensive arable, hedgerows, out of date surveys such as for improved and semi-improved grassland or has no baseline extend data at all such as for wood pasture, veteran trees. Enclosed farmland
Woodland
Urban
Biodiversity
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What is the extent of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? What is the baseline extent of traditional orchards, parkland, hedgerows, veteran trees and arable plant assemblages? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Stocks of natural resources are a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The majority of the habitat extent data is based on partial surveys such as for parkland, traditional orchards, extensive arable, hedgerows, out of date surveys such as for improved and semi-improved grassland or has no baseline extend data at all such as for wood pasture, veteran trees. Enclosed farmland
Woodland
Urban
Biodiversity
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What is the extent of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? What is the extent of improved grassland across Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Currently the Welsh Government agricultural statistics presents data on grassland under 5 years and over 5 years, along with rough grazing. These figures are obtained from farmers through the Single Application Form to claim Basic Payment Scheme. However, the figures do not show the true extent of improved grassland as grassland over 5 years and rough grazing could include semi-natural grassland. Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
What is the extent of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? What is the extent of the use of Trees Outside Woodlands and hedgerows? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
There is limited information and data on the use of Trees Outside Woodlands and hedgerows and the extent across Wales. There is good data for woodlands. Red squirrels and dormice are potentially using Tree Outside Woodlands and hedgerows more frequently. Enclosed farmland
Woodland
Ecosystem resilience
What is the condition of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? What is the condition of existing semi-natural habitat within Enclosed Farmland: hedgerows, species-rich arable land, orchards, wood pasture, semi-improved grassland, veteran trees?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
There is limited data from GMEP/ERAMMP on hedgerow condition and semi-improved grasslands. There is no condition data available for the other habitats. Enclosed farmland
Woodland
Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
Waste
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the condition of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? What is good condition for improved grassland and arable land? How could it be measured? Aim 2
Aim 4
To be able to measure progress towards sustainable management of natural resources we need to understand good condition of productive land and to be able to measure it. Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
What is the condition of existing Enclosed Farmland habitat? What is the current species composition of wood pasture and traditional orchards? Aim 1
Aim 2
There is extremely limited survey work on species composition of wood pasture and orchards. A baseline for condition is required as well as information to inform optimum management. Enclosed farmland
Semi-natural grassland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What sustainable management practises are being adopted on highly productive land? Where are these being used and over what area? Aim 2
Aim 4
There is currently extremely limited information on the use of the many sustainable management techniques.  Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Air quality
Climate change
Biodiversity
Waste
Water efficiency
Ecosystem resilience
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? Where are the opportunities and barriers to maintaining and restoring arable plant assemblages? Aim 1
Aim 2
Arable plant communities are the ecosystem foundation for many farmland specialist species and are vanishing rapidly from Wales - along with the animals they support. An understanding of what caused poor uptake of beneficial Glastir options could be used to inform future policy for the Sustainable Farming Scheme. In addition, an exploration of other mechanisms to support beneficial management would inform wider policy. Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What are the most effective methods to change landowner or contractor behaviour to achieve improved hedgerow condition? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
We have evidence around the barriers to and opportunities for improving hedgerow management. Behaviour change is at the heart of these opportunities and further understanding is required on how to best influence management practises. Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What are the most effective management methods to restore wood pasture whilst retaining some form of grazing management? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Historically, wood pasture was often the accidental result of periods with little or no grazing. Replicating this method requires long, 5 to 10 year, periods with very low grazing rates. These are often not economic or practical in current conditions. Fencing individual trees to allow establishment is not cost effective. Sabre planting can be successful but only on steep slopes. What other methods to establish trees are possible? Enclosed farmland
Climate change
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What measures are the most effective at reducing the rapid decline in invertebrates in the enclosed farmland landscape? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Invertebrates are critical to the functioning of ecosystems, without them essential functions will collapse. There are many causes for the massive loss of invert biomass in the landscape. We require a literature review of the interventions that have been shown to have a positive impact on invert populations. The next steps in seeking the answer to this question would depend upon the review conclusions. Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What is the trend in the quantity of organic fertiliser, manure and slurry, being spread on grassland? If an increase has occurred, which farming systems are responsible for this? Aim 2
Aim 3
There is some evidence that rates of nutrient inputs from animal waste are increasing. We wish to quantify this and pinpoint the main contributors. Increased nutrient levels would have a further detrimental impact on air and water quality as well as biodiversity. Enclosed farmland
Freshwater
Land use and soil
Air quality
Waste
Ecosystem resilience
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What are the quantities of inorganic fertiliser being spread to grassland in Wales? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
The data is very limited on how much inorganic fertiliser is spread to land in Wales. The current figures are for UK wide. Having organic and inorganic fertiliser figures will show much fertilisers are being applied to grassland Enclosed farmland
Ecosystem resilience
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What is the impact of pesticide applications on soil fauna? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Soil fauna are vital to good soil condition. There are significant differences in soil fauna populations between highly productive land and semi-natural land, evidence from ERAMMP. How much do pesticides contribute to reductions in soil fauna? Where there is a significant impact, which pesticides are chiefly responsible? Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity 
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What is the toxicity of pesticides being applied to land and the variety of pesticides used on a single crop? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Fera Science provides data on the weight and treated areas but there is limited data on the toxicity of pesticides. The weight of pesticides applied to land has decreased over past 25 years but the hectarage and the frequency of treatments have increased. This could be having impacts on ecosystems and the soil, especially if the toxicity levels have increased. Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity 
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What are the soil erosion rates and frequency of erosion events within common management systems in grassland and arable land? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Soil is a vital natural resource and there is very little information available on soil erosion in Wales. It is often assumed that the rate of soil loss is low as grassland systems predominate. Anecdotal evidence however suggests otherwise. Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change 
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What is the frequency of soil compaction in the main farming systems? What is the most common causes of soil compaction? Aim 2
Aim 4
Soil condition is an important element in productivity and carbon storage. There is conflicting evidence on the prevalence of soil compaction in Wales. Evidence from ERAMMP suggest that the frequency of compaction is low, however, evidence from other sources suggests that the frequency is medium to high. Better data is required to quantify the degree of compaction and identify the most frequent causes. Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
What are the trends and drivers in ecosystem condition? What are the most appropriate indicators for measuring and reporting on soil condition? Aim 2
Aim 4
Soil condition is an important element in food production and carbon storage. A reliable and widely-agreed measure is required to be able to monitor and report on soil condition. Enclosed farmland
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Urban
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
How can ecosystem resilience be enhanced while maintaining provisioning services? What is the potential to increase carbon stocks within grassland soils? Aim 2 Grassland covers a very large area of Wales. It provides the potential to be able to store significant quantities of carbon if the soils frequently hold less than their maximum level of carbon. Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Climate change
How can ecosystem resilience be enhanced while maintaining provisioning services? What is the area of crops grown for biomass or biofuel? Aim 4 These crops are part of the Climate Change Committee's recommendations for combating climate change. There is currently no reliable baseline of their extent. Enclosed farmland
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
How can ecosystem resilience be enhanced while maintaining provisioning services? What is the potential for carbon sequestration in traditional agroforestry systems? Aim 2
Aim 4
Traditional agroforestry systems such as wood pasture and orchards offer the potential to sequester carbon while maintaining food production on the same piece of land. There has been little research into what potential of these habitats is sequester carbon. Enclosed farmland
Woodland
Climate change
How can ecosystem resilience be enhanced while maintaining provisioning services? What are the benefits and impacts on ecosystem services of using maize crops grown for biomass to feed anaerobic digesters for sustainable energy production?



Aim 1
Aim 4
Maize crops have both negative and positive impacts on ecosystem services. The crop provides biomass for anaerobic digesters but potentially creates soil erosion and water quality issues. Should we promote this land use? Do the benefits outweigh the disbenefits? Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Climate change
What can be done to reduce energy consumption/demand in Wales? What are the trends and drivers of energy consumption and demand in Wales? And for what sectors is this information missing? Aim 4 Current data is based on Welsh Government's first report on Energy Use in Wales which could be improved by adding further detail as the data was from 2018. There are also data at the UK level from Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, it is not comprehensive for devolved administration, and  there is also the challenge of finding the relevant data and sifting through to present in simpler ways that could help policy makers. Energy
Climate change
What can be done to reduce energy consumption/demand in Wales? What are the barriers to reducing energy consumption in Wales? How can these be addressed. What and where are the opportunities or interventions that could help reduce energy consumption/demand in Wales.

Aim 4 The evidence for this is limited and patchy.

We would like to know the options to address barriers or reduce the barriers. Effectiveness of interventions used to reduce energy demand and consumption. Behavioural insights into promoting energy reduction and energy efficiency in behaviours.
Energy
Waste
Water efficiency
Climate change
What can be done to reduce energy consumption/demand in Wales? What methods can be used to monitor progress to reducing energy demand?  Aim 4 We need an assessment of methods available to assess change in energy consumption/demand to include behaviour change across society Energy
Climate change
How can energy efficiency uptake in Wales be improved? What are the barriers to increasing energy efficiency in Wales? How can these be addressed?  Aim 4 Current progress on the energy efficiency does not reflect this. Policies, programmes and plans need to prioritised for greater focus on energy efficiency. Most of data is very much focused on building and housing and more so for social housing and/or certain georaphical area. Energy
Waste
Water efficiency
Climate change
How can energy efficiency uptake in Wales be improved? Where are the greatest opportunities for improving energy efficiency in Wales in addition to housing? How should opportunities be maximised? Aim 4 Current progress on the energy efficiency does not reflect this. Policies, programmes and plans need to prioritised for greater focus on energy efficiency. Most of data is very much focused on building and housing and more so for social housing and/or certain georaphical area. Energy
Waste
Water efficiency
Climate change
How should the energy efficiency regulation improve and how should Wales influence it? Where and how should Wales lobby on the regulation of energy efficiency? Aim 4 Evidence needed to progress SMNR Aim 4. Energy
Climate change
How can we protect the natural and cultural value whilst intensifying renewable energy? What is the impact of different types of renewable energy on the natural environment in Wales?

Aim 2
Aim 4
Evidence is limited. We could have greater benefits if evidence is produced at finer geographical scales.

We need evidence to reflect the renewable energy mix in Wales such as onshore wind, offshore wind, solar, hydropower, ground and air source heat pumps, geothermal, biomass and emerging technolgies like hydrogen.

There is potential for Welsh Government Wales Regional Energy Plans to conduct evidence that considers the impact of renewable energy that has potetnial in that region. Area statement would also be a useful tool in aiding this piece of work
Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
How can we protect the natural and cultural value whilst intensifying renewable energy? What is the impact of emerging technologies for renewable energy on the natural environment in Wales and its ecosystem services? Aim 2
Aim 4
Renewable Energy should be a nature based solution that continously supports the ecosystem. For instance green hydrogen production from offshore wind could have impact on the marine environment especially on a commercial scale despite it being best form of hydrogen production. Energy
Ecosystem resilience
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
How can we protect the natural and cultural value whilst intensifying renewable energy? What is the impact of emerging technologies for renewable energy on human well-being?  Aim 3
Aim 4
This would provide a holistic view of technologies Energy
What is the benefit and impact of energy use and production on the Well-Being Future Generations Goals and SoNaRR themes? What are the synergies and trade-offs of energy with the Well-being Future Generation Goals and SoNaRR themes?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To obtain an understanding which Well-being goals and SoNaRR themes are intrinsically linked to energy.
1. Energy cuts across many sectors that is intrisically linked to well-being goals. There are no evidence available that considers the well-being goals against the SoNaRR or key themes for Wales.
2. Energy cuts across many sectors and areas as seen in the synergies and trade of energy with the UN SDG goals. So it is useful to see how energy other themes link to the well-being goals. This would be very useful assesing the progress of energy in relation to wider Welsh goals.
Energy
Woodland
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Air Quality
Waste
Water efficiency
Invasive non-native species
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the benefit and impact of energy use and production on the Well-Being Future Generations Goals and SoNaRR themes? Which goals in the Well-being of Future Generations Act require a change in the energy system? Aim 4 What are the synergies and trade-offs which affect;
1. Aspiration of achieving the greater welfare of well-being
2. Build physical and social infrastructures for sustainable development
3. Achieve sustainable management of the natural environment

For instance, in order to achieve 'a healthier Wales goal', look at the impact of energy on health such as fuel poverty, air quality - so what needs to fundamentally change in the energy system to help achieve healthier Wales. 
Energy
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the current extent and recent trends of sand dune habitats inside and outside protected sites? Aim 1
Aim 2
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Cimate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the current extent and recent trends of saltmarsh habitats inside and outside protected sites? Aim 1
Aim 2
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The extent data for saltmarshs is relatively old, especially considering that this is a dynamic habitat. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the current extent and recent trends of sea cliff habitats (including maritime grassland and maritime heath) inside and outside protected sites?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The extent data for sea cliffs is relatively old and in places is incomplete. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the current extent and recent trends of vegetated shingle inside and outside protected sites?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. The baseline extent data for vegetated shingle is incomplete. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the current extent and recent trends in coastal lagoon habitats? Aim 1
Aim 2
Stocks of natural resources is a basic measure of sustainable management of natural resources. A number of saline lagoons and potential saline lagoons have been identified in Wales in 2000, this list now needs to be reviewed. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Where have there been changes in the extent of coastal habitats?  Aim 1
Aim 2
This would help with the assesment of stocks of the coastal habitats. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Where are the coastal habitats most vulnerable to loss or extent and connectivity now and under future projections?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Identifying the most vulnerable areas of losses will aid the identification and prioritisation of opportunities for restoration, help asses the level of impact of individual pressures and inform actions to reverse declines in extent. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Where have there been gains in coastal margin habitat from habitat restoration?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Evidence needed to progress SMNR Aims 1 and 2.. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity

How can we improve coastal habitat resilience? 
Where are the opportunities to restore and reconnect coastal habitats, increase extent to reverse fragmentation and to reconnect the coastal margins with terrestrial networks and the marine ecosystem to improve resilience? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Connectivity is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Identification of vulnerable areas would enable identification and prioritisation of opportunities. Coastal margins
Marine
Freshwater
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the condition of coastal margins habitats within protected sites where there is no up to date data?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Condition is a basic measure of stocks of natural resources and resilience. Coastal margins
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the spatial extent and types of recreational use of the coast? Aim 3 This evidence would help evaluate the importance of the coast for well-being and to the economy in terms of recreation Coastal margins
Marine
Land use and soil
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Are there 'hotspots' for access to the coast and is pressure of people impacting the habitat and species? Aim 1
Aim 2
This evidence would help to evaluate extent of this pressure and identify areas for management. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the impact of disturbance including recreation, access, boats and aircraft on coastal birds? Aim 1
Aim 2
This evidence would help to evaluate extent of this pressure and identify areas for management. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the distribution, intensity and frequency of hunting ducks and geese, wildfowling? Aim 1
Aim 2
This evidence would help to evaluate extent of this pressure and identify areas for management. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
How can we improve coastal habitat resilience?  Where are the opportunities to achieve management to improve condition? Aim 1
Aim 2
Highlighting locations from condition data will enable prioritisation for actions to improve resilience. Coastal margins
Ecosystem resilience
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? How is agriculture impacting coastal habitats both positively and negatively? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Coastal margins
Enclosed farmland
Freshwater
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem?

 
What is the rate of carbon sequestration for coastal grasslands and coastal heath? Aim 3
Aim 4
This evidence to inform regulating ecosystem service in terms of carbon sequestration. There are no values for coastal grasslands and coastal heath. Coastal margins
Marine
Climate change
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem? How are Welsh saltmarshes used by fish for example, for nursery areas and foraging? Aim 1
Aim 4
There has been little research into this ecosystem service within Wales. Coastal margins
Marine
Biodiversity
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem?

 
What contribution do Welsh saltmarshes make as supporting habitat for non commercial and commercial fish populations and what is the economic value of this service for the commercial species? Aim 1
Aim 4
This evidence would enable evaluation of a potentially important ecosystem service of which there is little known for the Welsh context. Identify opportunities for enhancement. Coastal margins
Marine
Biodiversity
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem?

 
How can we manage saltmarsh to improve it as a habitat for fish? Aim 1
Aim 4
To identify opportunities. Coastal margins
Marine
Biodiversity
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem?
 
How many properties do sand dunes and shingle ridges protect? Aim 3
Aim 4
Evaluate the extent of the flood defence ecosystem service which coastal habitats provide Coastal margins
Woodland
Freshwater
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem?
 
How much agricultural land do sand dune and shingle ridges protect?  Aim 3
Aim 4
Evaluate the extent of the flood defence ecosystem service which coastal habitats provide Coastal margins
Enclosed farmland
Semi-natural grassland
Land use and soil
What is the level of ecosystem service provision for the coastal margins ecosystem?
 
At what locations could saltmarsh habitat be managed to protect and enhance coastal flood defences and wider coastal protection?  Aim 3
Aim 4
Evidence needed to progress Aims 3 and 4. Coastal margins
Urban 
How can we improve coastal resilience?  What is the public perception of value of coastal habitats, particularly for dunes and shingle as coastal defence structures and social confidence in the utility of nature-based solutions? Aim 3
Aim 4
Inform policy, land management decisions and communication to aid community understanding of coastal management. Coastal margins
Climate change
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient?

What is the impact of climate change driven changes in hydrological conditions for example sea level rise, near shore wave activity and storms events on Welsh shorelines? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Coastal margins
Marine
Land use and soil
Freshwater
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient?

Over what timescales do coastal habitats take to recover after storm events?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Coastal margins
Marine
Freshwater
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the status and potential long term trends of regional sediment budgets in coastal margins? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Coastal margins
Marine
Land use and soil
Freshwater
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the impact of changes in temperature and rainfall to coastal margins habitats in Wales and how will this affect their resilience under future climate change scenarios? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Coastal margins
Marine
Land use and soil
Freshwater
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Is habitat 'rollback' actually occurring as a response to sea level rise and erosion and if it is, where is it occurring and to what extent? Aim 1
Aim 2
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Inform resilience. Coastal margins
Freshwater
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Where is saltmarsh developing where there have been unplanned breaches or in ‘No Active Intervention’ Shoreline Management Plan policy units?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Inform resilience. Coastal margins
Freshwater
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Is saltmarsh developing further up estuaries than previous distribution and moving inland where unconstrained? Aim 1
Aim 2
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Inform resilience. Coastal margins
Freshwater
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? Where are there opportunities to remove constraints to enable habitat 'rollback' allowing coastal habitats to respond naturally to sea level rise and increased erosion rates? Aim 1
Aim 2
Evaluate extent of pressure and identify areas for intervention. Inform resilience. Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Ecosystem resilience
Climate change
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the long term and combined impact of chemical contaminants on ecological status of lagoon water bodies and estuarine water bodies associated with saltmarsh? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Inform condition and pressure from poor water quality. Coastal margins
Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the impact of elevated nutrient levels on algal growth and resulting impact on organisms in estuarine and coastal water bodies?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Inform condition and pressure from poor water quality. Coastal margins
Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What is the long term impact of chemical contaminants on saltmarsh ecology including the impacts on vegetation, marine fauna and terrestrial organisms supported by the marsh? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Inform condition and pressure from poor water quality. Coastal margins
Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Is the coastal margin ecosystem resilient? What new and emerging contaminants have potential to impact water quality and how can these be manged and regulated? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Inform condition and pressure from poor water quality. Coastal margins
Freshwater
Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
How can we improve coastal habitat resilience?  What are the potential options for nature based solutions or providing mitigation where coastal process have been modified, for example by coastal defences? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aid identification of areas of focus. Coastal margins
Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
How can we improve coastal habitat resilience?  What are the costs and benefits of carrying out mitigation and enhancement to hydro-morphological processes where these have been modified in the past? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aid identification of areas of focus. Coastal margins
Marine
Ecosystem resilience
Biodiversity
Climate change
How can we improve our knowledge of soils in Wales? How can we improve our knowledge of soils across Wales to supplement national monitoring to assess the spatial distribution of the sustainable use of soils? What platforms can be used to capture this?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To improve our spatial understanding of the extent to which soils are managed and used sustainably. Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
How resilient are our soil organic carbon stocks in soils? What are the trends in soil carbon stocks in carbon rich soils across wales? How can we maintain equilibrium and where appropriate increase sequestration? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
To track progress with the Natural Resource Policy and SMNR challenge and to inform how to safeguard and increase carbon in soils and biomass. Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Water efficiency
Climate change
Are soils impacted by pollution?  What is the extent of soils that are impacted by contaminants on former industrial sites which pose a risk to human health and water quality? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess the risk to human health and water quality and to implement appropriate remediation Land use and soil
Freshwater
Urban
Waste
Biodiversity
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably? What is the spatial extent, rate and severity of soil loss in Wales? Do rates of soil loss exceed soil formation rates? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
This is a priority in order to assess the extent to which SMNR is being achieved. This relates to Aim 1. Are stocks of natural resources being maintained and enhanced.  Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the impact of climate change on soils?  What are the state and trends of soils in Wales and their vulnerability and resilience to land use, land management, and changing weather patterns across different soil types in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
To assess the impact of climate change on soils. Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the impact of climate change on soils?  What is the impact of climate change on soil chemical changes, macro and micro nutrients in Wales? Aim 2 Evidence gaps remain on the impact of climate change on the chemical properies of soils, emphasis on nutrients. Land use and soil
Climate change
What is the impact of land use change on soils in Wales? What is the impact of soil sealing due to land use change in Wales on soil function and ecosystem services?  Aim 2
Aim 4
This will help inform the extent of soil sealing especially in areas vulnerable to flooding. Land use and soil
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
Are soils impacted by pollution?  What are the trends of contaminants in soils (PCBs, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and trace elements) and their potential impact on ecosystem services?  Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Baseline survey reported by the UK Soils & Herbage Survey in 2007. No updates to PCBs, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and trace metals in soils and herbage to assess national trends. This is required to assess any potential impact on ecosystem services and well-being. Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Waste
Air quality
Biodiversity
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably?  What is the distribution and size of the landbank (agricultural land) available for recycling nutrients or organic materials? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess whether soils are sustainably managed and used now and in the future. To prevent overapplication of materials and pollution through better land use planning. Land use and soil
Freshwater
Enclosed farmland
Waste
Biodiversity
What is the impact of soil pollution on the delivery of ecosystem services?  What is the presence, extent and concentrations of plastic and microplastics in soils? How does this affect the ecosystem services provided by soils? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess the impact on soil ecosystem services and well-being Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
Waste
Biodiversity
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably? How much land affected by historic contamination has been remediated and brought back into beneficial use? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess the sustainable use of land for well-being benefits. Land use and soil
Woodland
Freshwater
Urban
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably?  What is the impact of land use on the extent and condition of organo-mineral soils across Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
This assessment will help to inform better land use and management prctices in future and help to prevent or minimise carbon losses. Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
Biodiversity

Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably?  What is the extent and severity of topsoil and subsoil compaction in soils across Wales? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help to inform what practices and which areas would benefit from natural flood or drainage management Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
What is the impact of climate change on soils?  What is the direct impact of climate change on soil moisture levels? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
  Land use and soil
Woodland
Coastal margins
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Water efficiency
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
How can we improve our knowledge of soils in Wales?

What are the soil types and their main functions across the network of protected sites in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
To give soils more of a prominent role in site descriptors. Land use and soil
Woodland
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Biodiversity
How can we improve our knowledge of soils?

What are the high risk human and animal pathogens found in soils? Where are they present and what is their extent? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Plant and animal diseases are predicted to change due to climate change. To assess potential risk to human, plant and animal health Land use and soil
Woodland
Freshwater
Coastal margins
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Enclosed farmland
Urban
Waste
Invasive non-native species
Semi-natural grassland
How can we improve our knowledge of soils?

What is the presence and extent of genetic materials in soils for potential future biomedical resources and disease control? Aim 1
Aim 3
Plant and animal diseases are predicted to change due to climate change. To assess the full extent of the provisioning service provided by soils. Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
How can we sequester and store more carbon in soils?  What is the viability and applicability of carbon capture techniques such as enhanced weathering to land in Wales? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess options for enhancing and accelerating through using natural processes the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Land use and soil
Climate change
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably? How has land use and land management systems changed in Wales and what is the impact on soils? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Soil condition is mostly a function of the management system in place and so any changes to land use and land management systems need to be monitored. In adition, a better understanding and monitoring of shared land uses where primary use is for woodland or agriculture but also may support renewable energy development for example would be useful.  Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Energy
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably? What are the different soil management practices and systems used in Wales and are these practices sustainable? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess th extent to which soils are managed sustainably for tackling the Climate and Nature Emergency and to help inform future policy changes. Sustainable Soil management is an increasing concern for society.  Land use and soil
Woodland
Freshwater
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Air quality
Climate change
Biodiversity
How resilient are our soil organic carbon stocks in soils? What is the extent and condition of intensively managed grassland and arable peatlands? How can these be managed more sustainably to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
The most intensive greenhouse gas emissions are from intensively managed arable and grasslands not semi-natural habitats (Low Carbon Wales Report). Land use and soil
Coastal Margins
Enclosed farmland
Cimate change
Biodiversity
How resilient are our soil organic carbon stocks in soils? Why has soil organic carbon concentrations declined on habitat land in the uplands? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
ERAMMP monitoring has shown a short-term decline this evidence is needed to help inform future sustainable land management practices. Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Semi-natural grassland
Climate change
Biodiversity
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably? What is the extent of soil compaction from poaching and machinery? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable soil management practices especially in areas affected by flooding. Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
How can we manage and use soils more sustainably? Can we meet the food requirement of a growing population without damaging the environment? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable land management pratices Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the impact of climate change on soils?  What is the predicted impact of flooding and sea level rise on agricultural soils? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable land use and management pratices Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
How can we manage and use soils more sustainably? What economic levers can be used to enable resource efficient and circular use of nutrients to land? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help incentivise sustainable use and management of nutrients to land. Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
Waste
Climate change
Biodiversity
How can we manage and use soils more sustainably? What are the downstream impacts of reducing nutrient to land? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess the impact on soils and wider environment Land use and soil
Marine
Freshwater
Enclosed farmland
Air quality
Waste
Are soils in Wales managed and used sustainably? What is the contribution of non-agricultural sources of nutrient to land? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable land management pratices Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
Waste
How can we manage and use soils more sustainably? What soil management practices can be used to improve the use of nutrients? Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable land management pratices in future Land use and soil
Enclosed farmland
Waste
How can we manage and use soils more sustainably? How does soil management practices contribute to nature based solutions? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable land management pratices in future Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
Biodiversity
How can we manage and use soils more sustainably? What indicators can be used for the sustainable use and management of soils? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To assess the extent to which sustainable use and management of soils is achieved. Land use and soil
Woodland
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Waste
Climate change
Biodiversity
How sustainable Is land use and management in Wales? What interventions are most efficient at reducing the greenhouse gas emissions on farms in Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
To help inform future sustainable land use and management pratices. Land use and soil
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Coastal margins
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Climate change
What is the impact of waste generated in Wales on the environment in Wales?  What is the impact of waste generated by the construction and demolition sectors in Wales on greenhouse gas emmisions and ecological footprint within Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Current waste data sources are limited in terms of providing comprehensive coverage across all waste producers on a regular basis. In addition, some data sources such as surveys, have limited accuracy owing to their voluntary nature and we do not have data on all waste managed in Wales, for example because some activities are exempt from reporting to the regulator.

SoNaRR 2020 has had to use Construction and Demolition National survey estimates that are now 8 years out of date. The Construction and Demolition sector accounted for the majority of waste generated in Wales in 2012 so this is a significant evidence gap in assessing Wales' progress in reducing waste and increasing recovery.
Waste
Urban
Land use and soil
What is the impact of waste generated in Wales on the environment in Wales?  What is the impact of waste generated by households in Wales on greenhouse gas emmisions and ecological footprint within Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Current waste data sources are limited in terms of providing comprehensive coverage across all waste producers on a regular basis. In addition, some data sources such as surveys, have limited accuracy owing to their voluntary nature and we do not have data on all waste managed in Wales for example because some activities are exempt from reporting to the regulator.  Waste
Urban
Land use and soil
What is the impact of waste generated in Wales on the environment in Wales?  What is the impact of waste generated by the industrial sector in Wales on greenhouse gas emmisions and ecological footprint within Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Current waste data sources are limited in terms of providing comprehensive coverage across all waste producers on a regular basis. In addition, some data sources such as surveys, have limited accuracy owing to their voluntary nature and we do not have data on all waste managed in Wales for example because some activities are exempt from reporting to the regulator.  Waste
Urban
Land use and soil
What is the impact of waste generated in Wales on the environment in Wales?  What is the impact of waste generated by the commercial sectors in Wales on greenhouse gas emmisions and ecological footprint within Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Current waste data sources are limited in terms of providing comprehensive coverage across all waste producers on a regular basis. In addition, some data sources such as surveys, have limited accuracy owing to their voluntary nature and we do not have data on all waste managed in Wales for example because some activities are exempt from reporting to the regulator.  Waste
Urban
Land use and soil
What is the global impact of waste generated in Wales on the environment?  What is the impact of waste generated by the construction and demolition, household, industrial, and commercial sectors in Wales on greenhouse gases emmisions and ecological footprint outside Wales?  Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Exact data or figures for these exported waste streams is not available. To understand the full life cycle and flow of waste and resources the following exports data is needed:
1. Tonnages and types of ‘greenlist’ waste exported.
2. End destination / recycler for all exported waste
3. Ecological impact of this waste
4. End use of the exported waste
Waste
Urban
Land use and soil
How can we improve the sustainable use of soils?  How much soil has been re-used on site of origin or on other sites as defined by CL:AIRE Definition of Waste: Code of Practice?

Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
This information would be combined with additional sources of evidence such as soil waste generated and landfill operator returns to see if the trend was decreasing. Together we will use this evidence to assess if soil resources are being used efficiently. Land use and soil
Urban
Waste
What is the impact of managing waste in Wales on the environment?  What is the impact of applying biowaste to land on soil health in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Obtain wider understanding of assessing further positive and negative impacts on soil health from application of biowastes to land. Biowaste is increasingly diverted from disposal for recovery for example food waste, we need to be able to assess whether Wales has the land for absorbing the recovery outputs, for example compost or digestate, beneficially to enrich soils as opposed to over application and any other unintended consequences/impacts to the Natural Environment. We also need to assess that the waste is suitable to be applied to land in the first instance, for example to assess the level of compliance with Quality Protocols and others.  Waste
Urban
Land use and soil
What is the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems? What are the predicted impacts of climate change, in terms of magnitude and frequency, on river flow droughts and flood events? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Climate change predictions indicate signficant changes to river flow regimes. However the magnituide of those changes, and the potential impacts and consequences on our ecosystems, natural resources and people’s wellbeing remains poorly understood. Freshwater
Climate change
What is the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems? What are the predicted impacts of climate change on river and lake water temperature in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Climate change predictions indicate signficant changes to water temperatures. However the magnituide of those changes, and the potential impacts and consequences on our ecosystems, natural resources and people’s wellbeing remains poorly understood. Freshwater
Climate change
What is the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems? Which freshwater-dependent habitats and species are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, how will they be affected and where are they located in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Climate change predictions indicate signficant changes to water flows, levels and temperatures. However the magnituide of those changes, and the potential impacts and consequences on our ecosystems, natural resources and people’s wellbeing remains poorly understood. Freshwater
Climate change
Biodiversity
What is the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems? How can we measure the resilience of freshwater-dependent ecosystems to climate change? Aim 1
Aim 2
Climate change predictions indicate signficant changes to water flows, levels and temperatures. However the magnituide of those changes, and the potential impacts and consequences on our ecosystems, natural resources and people’s wellbeing remains poorly understood. Freshwater
Climate change
What is the impact of physical modification on freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the extent of the physical modification of rivers and floodplains across Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Physical modification is the main reason for rivers Welsh rivers failing to achieve Good Ecological Status. Modifications to floodplains have significant impacts on ecosystem health and flood risk. However limited information is available on the extent and specific impacts of these modifications. This information is required to inform ecosystem resilience and restoration opportunities.  Freshwater
What is the impact of physical modification on freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What reliable tools can we use to measure the impact of physical modifications on rivers? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Physical modification is the main reason for rivers Welsh rivers failing to achieve Good Ecological Status. Modifications to floodplains have significant impacts on ecosystem health and flood risk. However limited information is available on the extent and specific impacts of these modifications. This information is required to inform ecosystem resilience and restoration opportunities.  Freshwater
Climate change
What is the impact of physical modification on freshwater ecosystems in Wales? How can we effectively monitor river habitat structure and geomorphology? Aim 1
Aim 2
Physical modification is the main reason for rivers Welsh rivers failing to achieve Good Ecological Status. Modifications to floodplains have significant impacts on ecosystem health and flood risk. However limited information is available on the extent and specific impacts of these modifications. This information is required to inform ecosystem resilience and restoration opportunities.  Freshwater
What is the impact of physical modification on freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the extent and quantified impact of unconsented river modification in Wales? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Physical modification is the main reason for rivers Welsh rivers failing to achieve Good Ecological Status. Modifications to floodplains have significant impacts on ecosystem health and flood risk. However limited information is available on the extent and specific impacts of these modifications. This information is required to inform ecosystem resilience and restoration opportunities.  Freshwater
Climate change
What is the impact of physical modification on freshwater ecosystems in Wales? How many complete or partial barriers to migratory fish are there in Welsh rivers? What are the quantified impacts of these barriers (i.e. lengths of rivers with decreased accessibility) to the different species of anadromous fish? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Physical modification is the main reason for rivers Welsh rivers failing to achieve Good Ecological Status. Modifications to floodplains have significant impacts on ecosystem health and flood risk. However limited information is available on the extent and specific impacts of these modifications. This information is required to inform ecosystem resilience and restoration opportunities.  Freshwater
Biodiversity
What is the impact of physical modification on freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the quantified extent and location of river reaches in Wales that are disconnected from their floodplains? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Physical modification is the main reason for rivers Welsh rivers failing to achieve Good Ecological Status. Modifications to floodplains have significant impacts on ecosystem health and flood risk. However limited information is available on the extent and specific impacts of these modifications. This information is required to inform ecosystem resilience and restoration opportunities.  Freshwater
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Climate change
What are the sources and impacts of water pollution on freshwater ecosystems? How can we achieve reliable source-apportionment for diffuse pollution? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Pollution from rural sources is the second biggest factor in preventing Welsh rivers from achieving Good Ecological Status. In order to address this issue, we need to develop an improved ability to identify source apportionment for diffuse pollution. Freshwater
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
What are the sources and impacts of water pollution on freshwater ecosystems? How do we measure and predict levels of fine sediment in rivers and lakes? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Pollution from rural sources including nutrient and silt run-off, is the second biggest factor in preventing Welsh rivers from achieving Good Ecological Status. In order to address this issue, we need to improve our understanding of sources and quantities of fine sediments in rivers and lakes.  Freshwater
Marine
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
What are the sources and impacts of water pollution on freshwater ecosystems? What are the ecological impacts of fine sediments on freshwater pearl mussel and salmonid fish? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 4
Pollution from rural sources including nutrient and silt run-off is the second biggest factor in preventing Welsh rivers from achieving Good Ecological Status. In order to address this issue, we need to improve our understanding of the impacts of fine sediments in rivers. Freshwater
Marine
Biodiversity
What are the sources and impacts of water pollution on freshwater ecosystems? What are the impacts of intensive poultry units on water quality? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Pollution from rural sources is the second biggest factor in preventing Welsh rivers from achieving Good Ecological Status. In order to address this issue we need to develop an improved understanding of the impact of intesive poultry units on water quality, given the growth of this agricultural sector in Wales in recent years.  Freshwater
Marine
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
What are the sources and impacts of water pollution on freshwater ecosystems? What are the impacts of new and emerging chemical contaminants and substances, such as neonicotinoid pesticides, nanoparticles and pharmaceuticals, on water quality and ecology? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Our limited understanding of new and emerging chemical contaminants and substances restricts our ability to assess their impacts. For example, there are currently no indicators for microplastics, and setting ecologically relevant thresholds is still in development. Freshwater
Marine
Urban
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Biodiversity
What are the sources and impacts of water pollution on freshwater ecosystems? How do chemical pollutants interact and what is their combined impact on ecology and human health alone and in combination with other pressures? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
In order to safeguard our freshwater natural resources and human wellbeing, we need to better understand how combinations of chemicals impact on ecology and human health, and their interaction with other environmental pressures.  Freshwater
Marine
Urban
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Biodiversity
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the current condition of all freshwater-dependent SAC features in Wales? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Biodiversity
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the current condition of all freshwater-dependent SSSI features in Wales? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Biodiversity
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the current extent, condition and trends of floodplain habitats in Wales? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Biodiversity
Climate change
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the current extent, conditon and trends of ponds in Wales? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Mountains, moorlands, heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Biodiversity
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the most effective method of monitoring lamprey population size and spawning success? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Biodiversity
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the curent status and trends in common frog and toad populations in Wales, and can these species be used as a reliable indicator of pond ecosystem health? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Biodiversity
What is the extent and condition of freshwater ecosystems in Wales? What is the extent and condition of river gravels across Wales? Aim 1 Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? What is the cause of the recent decline in otter populations across Wales? Aim 1
Aim 3
Outdated or absent data and associated analyses hinders the assessment of the current extent, condition and trends of our freshwater ecosystems.  Freshwater
Biodiversity
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? What reliable tools can we use to identify opportunities and appropriate measures for the restoration of freshwater habitats? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Mountains, moorlands, heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
Climate change
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? What opportunities exist for river restoration across Wales on the Welsh Government Woodland Estate? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Woodland
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? How can we quantify the outcomes, km of river with intervention, and the biodiversity benefits, area of Ranunculion habitat with improved habitat structure, of river restoration measures at a reach and landscape scale? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Climate change
Biodiversity
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? How can the benefits of sustainable drainage systems on freshwater ecosystems be predicted and quantified? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Urban
Enclosed farmland
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? How can the benefits of natural flood management measures be predicted and quantified? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Climate change
Biodiversity
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? What is the cause of the decline in salmon stocks? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Biodiversity
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? What is the value of citizen science and community action in the control of invasive non-native species? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Invasive non-native species
How can freshwater ecosystem resilience be enhanced? How do we persuade land managers to change practices and mindsets to reduce nutrient and silt pollution of freshwater ecosystems? Aim 1
Aim 2
Aim 3
Aim 4
Restoration of freshwater ecosystems is key to improving their resilience to multiple pressures and addressing the climate and nature emergencies. Knowledge and tools are required to facilitate sucessful and cost effective ecosystem restoration. Freshwater
Mountains, moorland, and heath
Urban
Semi-natural grassland
Enclosed farmland
Land use and soil
What is the contribution of freshwater ecosystems to a regenerative economy? What reliable information sources and tools can we use to assess the contribution of freshwater ecosystems to a regenerative economy? Aim 4 Robust and accessible data is required to enable a full assessment of SMNR Aim 4. Freshwater
Waste
Water efficiency
Energy
What is the contribution of freshwater ecosystems to healthy places? What are the trends in numbers of people accessing freshwater ecosystems in Wales for outdoor recreation for example wild swimming? Aim 3 This evidence is needed to enable a full assessment of SMNR Aim 3.  Freshwater
How can ecosystem resilience be improved in Wales? What are the barriers to the uptake of regulatory measured put in place to provide minimum standards of environmental conditions?  Aim 2 An exploration of the benefits of raising the regulatory floor could be an important part of any post-EU exit review of these regulations. Most sectors also have long-standing voluntary guidance and standards for good practice. These could contribute to building resilience Ecosystem Resilience
How can we improve our assessment of ecosystem resilience in Wales? What monitoring is needed to enable reporting on resilience across the whole landscape and support transformational management change? Aim 2 We need this evidence to build a monitoring strategy for Wales that is capable of reporting on aspects of resilience across the whole landscape and which can support transformational management change  Ecosystem Resilience
How can we improve our assessment of ecosystem resilience in Wales? How can earth observation technology/ remote sensing and ground based measures be used to monitor ecosystem condition more comprehensively than currently? Aim 2 We need this evidence to build a monitoring strategy for Wales that is capable of reporting on aspects of resilience across the whole landscape and which can support transformational management change. Ecosystem Resilience
How can we improve our assessment of ecosystem resilience in Wales? Are current species diversity measures sufficient for the measurment of ecosystem resilience? Aim 2 We need this evidence to build a monitoring strategy for Wales that is capable of reporting on aspects of resilience across the whole landscape and which can support transformational management change  Ecosystem Resilience
How can we improve our assessment of ecosystem resilience in Wales? How can open source data be made easily available for use with sea or landscape scale assessment tools? Aim 2 To improve our assesment of ecosystem resilience Ecosystem Resilience
How can we promote the health of people together with our environment? What interventions promote health related use of the environment? Aim 3 To improve our assessment of healthy places Healthy places
How can we promote the health of people together with our environment? How can environmental interventions be used to benefit human health, without amplifying health and social inequalities? Aim 3 To improve our assessment of healthy places Healthy places
How can we promote the health of people together with our environment? How can pro-environmental behaviour be promoted to build connections between people and nature from childhood to adulthood?  Aim 3 To improve our assessment of healthy places Healthy places
How can we promote the health of people together with our environment? How can evidence emerging from COVID- 19 global pandemic response and impact be used to update current approaches to Wales's response to the nature and climate emergencies? Aim 3 To improve our assessment of healthy places Healthy places
What is Wales's global environmental impact? What is the global impact of Wales's food production and consumption on natural resources within and outside Wales? Aim 4 To improve the assessment of Wales's ecological and carbon footprint Regenerative economy
Stocks of natural resources
What is Wales's global environmental impact? What is the global impact of Wales's transport on natural resources within and outside Wales? Aim 4 To improve the assessment of Wales's ecological and carbon footprint Regenerative economy
Stocks of natural resources
What is Wales's global environmental impact? What is the global impact of Wales's energy production and use on natural resources within and outside Wales? Aim 4 To improve the assessment of Wales's ecological and carbon footprint Regenerative economy
Stocks of natural resources
What is Wales's global environmental impact? What is the Wales-wide carbon footprint?  Aim 4 To improve the assessment of Wales's ecological and carbon footprint Regenerative economy
Stocks of natural resources
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